Biodiversity Climate Change

COP15 Debrief

Official photo of the Adoption of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework 

On December 19, 2022 at 3:33 a.m. ET, the Kunming-Montreal Biodiversity Framework Agreement was adopted – a historic, once-in-a-decade moment for nature. The framework comprises 4 goals and 23 inter-connected targets to be achieved by 2030. First among the goals is the much-bruited 30×30 — effective conservation and management of at least 30% of the world’s lands, inland waters, coastal areas and oceans, with emphasis on areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services. Other targets include:

  • Having restoration completed or underway on at least 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland waters, and coastal and marine ecosystems
  • Reducing to near zero the loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, including ecosystems of high ecological integrity
  • Cutting global food waste in half and significantly reducing over consumption and waste generation
  • Reducing by half both excess nutrients and the overall risk posed by pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals
  • Progressively phasing out or reforming by 2030 subsidies that harm biodiversity by at least $500 billion per year, while scaling up positive incentives for biodiversity’s conservation and sustainable use
  • Mobilizing by 2030 at least $200 billion per year in domestic and international biodiversity-related funding from all sources – public and private
  • Funding – raising international financial flows from developed to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and countries with economies in transition, to at least US$ 20 billion per year by 2025, and to at least US$ 30 billion per year by 2030
  • Preventing the introduction of priority invasive alien species, and reducing by at least half the introduction and establishment of other known or potential invasive alien species, and eradicating or controlling invasive alien species on islands and other priority sites
  • Requiring large and transnational companies and financial institutions to monitor, assess, and transparently disclose their risks, dependencies and impacts on biodiversity through their operations, supply and value chains and portfolios

Commentators are mixed as to whether these measures will be enough. However, this outcome significantly exceeds the somewhat pessimistic projections that accompanied much of the debate, so just achieving an agreement is a win. The framework also includes: mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review; capacity-building and development and technical and scientific cooperation; and resource mobilization. As gardeners, we can do our bit to help foster biodiversity in our own backyards, and avoid planting invasive species.

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